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Body Structure:

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk arms and hands, legs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions

The human musculoskeletal system, is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems also known as the locomotor system. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body.

It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system’s primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs




Front view of a skeleton of an adult human

The skeletal system serves many important functions; it provides support and protection,shape and form for the body, allows bodily movement, produces blood for the body, and stores minerals.The number of bones in the human skeletal system is a controversial topic. Humans are born with over 300 bones; however, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. The number of bones varies according to the method used to derive the count.


There are three types of muscles—cardiac, skeletal, and smooth. Smooth muscles are used to control the flow of substances within the lumens of hollow organs, and are not consciously controlled.



On the anterior and posterior views of the muscular system above, superficial muscles (those at the surface) are shown on the right side of the body while deep muscles (those underneath the superficial muscles) are shown on the left half of the body. For the legs, superficial muscles are shown in the anterior view while the posterior view shows both superficial and deep muscles.


A tendon is a tough, flexible band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.



Human synovial joint composition

Joints are structures that connect individual bones and may allow bones to move against each other to cause movement. There are two divisions of joints


A ligament is a small band of dense, white, fibrous elastic tissue Ligaments connect the ends of bones together in order to form a joint.

Problems: foot:

Club foot or clubfoot, also called congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), is a congenital deformity involving one foot or both.] The affected foot appears to have been rotated internally at the ankle. Without treatment, people with club feet often appear to walk on their ankles or on the sides of their feet



Orthotic Treatment:

The Denis Browne bar, also known as the Denis Browne splint or foot abduction orthosis, is a medical device used in the treatment of club foot



7.planter fasciitis:

Plantar fasciitis (say “PLAN-ter fash-ee-EYE-tus”) is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia is the flat band of tissue (ligament) that connects your heel bone to your toes. It supports the arch of your foot. If you strain your plantar fascia, it gets weak, swollen, and irritated (inflamed). Then your heel or the bottom of your foot hurts when you stand or walk.


Orthotic treatment:

If you need orthotics for plantar fasciitis, you want to be absolutely sure that they are made correctly and conform almost air tight to your arch.


8.diabetic foot: If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your nerves or blood vessels. Nerve damage from diabetes can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. Serious cases may even lead to amputation.

Orthotic treatment: there is so many option are available but according to disease and disabilities.




9.flat foot: Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.

Orthotic treatment:



13.Drop foot:

Foot drop is a gait abnormality in which the dropping of the forefoot happens due to weakness, irritation or damage to the common fibular nerve including the sciatic nerve, or paralysis of the muscles in the anterior portion of the lower leg.

Orthotic treatment:


Genu valgum:

Genu valgum, commonly called “knock-knee“, is a condition in which the knees angle in and touch one another when the legs are straightened

Orthotic treatment:



Kyphosis) refers to the normal convex curvature of the spine as it occurs in the thoracic and sacral regions. Inward concave curving of the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine is called lordosis. The term kyphosis can also be used to describe excessive kyphosis or overcurvature when it is also known as hyperkyphosis.

Orthotic treatment:


Wrist drop:

Wrist drop, also known as radial nerve palsy, is a condition where a person cannot extend their wrist and it hangs flaccidly. To demonstrate wrist drop.

Orthotic treatment:


Transtibial amputation:

The goal of amputation is to remove unhealthy tissue and create a remaining leg that is less painful and more useful.

Amputation can improve quality of life for many patients.


Prosthetic option:

 Transradial amputation14:

Below-elbow prosthetic devices are created for patients who have been amputated through their forearm


Prosthetic option:15



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