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Cornea: The clear front window of the eye. The cornea transmits and focuses light into the eye.

Iris:The colored part of the eye. The iris helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.

Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Macula: A small area in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells. The macula allows us to see fine details clearly.

Optic Nerve: The nerve that connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses formed by the retina to the brain, which interprets them as images.

Pupil: The dark center in the middle of the iris. The pupil determines how much light is let into the eye. It changes sizes to accommodate for the amount of light that is available.

Retina:  The nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. The retina senses light and creates impulses that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain.

Vitreous: The clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye.



The function of the eye is “VISION”


“Normal physiological vision is created when light waves come in contact with the rods and cones on the outer surface of the retina. This induces photochemical transduction in the form of an electrical impulse which is then sent through the bipolar cells. These cells then relay the electrical message directly or indirectly through amacrine cells to the ganglion cells. All of axons of the ganglion cell come together to form what is known as the optic nerve. Then the signal reaches the optic chiasm and is sent down the optic tract. At a point, the signal turns into optic radiation, and proceeds to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe. From there, the message is sent to other processing and association areas of the brain.”



Myopia: (shortsightedness): Inability to see clearly at a distance. The eye is “too long” for the lens, so light isn’t focused properly on the retina.

Its treatment is surgical (photorefractive keratometry ,LASIK ,conductive keratoplasty). And non surgical is( concave lens & contact lens).

 Hyperopia:(long sightedness): Inability to see near objects clearly. The eye is “too short” for the lens, or certain eye muscles have weakened with age.

Its treatment is surgical ( photorefractive keratometry ,LASIK ,conductive keratoplasty). And non surgical is (convex lens & contact lens ).

Astigmatism: parallel rays of light coming from infinity and focus at two different point and form line fosa due to unequal error of refraction of both meridian of eye.

Its treatment is non surgical (cylindrical lens , spherocylindrical , hard contact lens). And surgical is (limbal relaxing incision , extra suture , photorefractive keratometry , LASEK , LASIK )

Strabismus: The eyes do not point in the same direction. The brain may then favour one eye, causing decreased vision (amblyopia) in the other eye.

classification is 1.pseudo strabismus



Its treatments is correct the refractive error, orthoptic exercise, prescription of prism, and surgical is ( recession & resection of EOM).

Amblyopia: (lazy eye): One eye sees better than the other, a problem of childhood development. The weaker eye may or may not “wander.” The weaker eye is called the “lazy eye.”

Treatment is to correct the refractive error and improve the vision in lazy eye by occlusion therapy etc.

Cataract: A clouding of the lens, which hinders the passage of light through the lens. Treatment is to correct the refractive error so that the patient can see easily until the patient come his next visit with complain that he has totally loss his vision then we perform surgery to remove the cataract. But we can extract the immature cataract depends upon patients profession.

 Glaucoma: Increased pressure inside the eye slowly reduces vision. Peripheral vision is lost first, often going undetected for years and cupping of optical disc is also occure.
1. Medical (beta blockers, prostaglandin analogues, alpha 2 adrenergic agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, miotics, adrenergic drugs)


Laser therapy (argon laser photocoagulation, diode laser photocoagulation,cyclophotocoagulation,)

surgical (goniotomy, trabeculotmy, trabeculectmy, artificial drainage shunt,

Stye (Hordeolum):: Bacteria infect theskinon the edge of the eyelid, creating a tender red bump.its treatment is analgesic, antibiotics,evacuation of pus.

Chalazion: An oil-making gland gets blocked and swells into a bump. Often confused with styes, chalazions are not caused by infections. Treatment ( hot fermentation, expression, topical steroids, anti inflammatory drops & antibiotics).

 Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids near theeyelashes. Blepharitis is a common cause of itching or a feeling of grit in the eyes.

Squamous blephritis treatment (eyelid hygine, topical antibiotics, selenium sulphide shampoo)
ulcerative blephritis (eyelid hygine, antibiotic, topical steroids, artificial tears)

Keratitis: Inflammation or infection of the cornea. Keratitis typically occurs after germs enter a corneal abrasion.bacterial keratitis , herpes zoster nd herpes simplex keratitis, fungal keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis

Treatment (analgesic, antibiotic, antiglaucoma drugs, conjunctival flap, antifungal, mechanical debridement, antiviral, weak steroids)

Conjunctivitis:Conjunctivitisis an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva. It is usually caused by allergies, a virus or a bacterial infection .bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis, chlamydial conjunctivitis, trachoma, ophthalmia neonatorum, allergic conjunctivitis, phlyctenular conjunctivitis.

treatment (irrigation of eye, antibiotics, anti toxin, antiviral, steroids, antihistamine, naphazoline, mast cell stabilizers, acetylcysteine)

Uveitis(iritis): The coloured part of the eye becomes inflamed or infected. An overactive immune system, bacteria or viruses can be responsible.

Anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis. Treatment( mydriatics, steroids, NSAIDs, cytotoxic drugs, antibiotics, cyclosporine, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, vitrectomy

Dry Eye : Either the eyes don’t produce enough tears, or the tears are of poor quality.DRY EYEcan be caused by medical problems such aslupus,scleroderma,

And  Sjogren’s syndrome.

Treatment (artificial tears, mucolytic agents, topical retinoids, reduction of tear drainage, surgery).

Diabetic retinopathy:High blood sugardamages blood vessels in the eye. Eventually, weakened blood vessels may overgrow the retina or bleed, threatening vision.stages 1. Background diabetic retinopathy

2.pre proliferative DR

3.proliferative DR


5 complicated DR

6 burnt out DR

Treatment (control of risk factor, control of DM, anti VEGF, intrvitreal steroids, laser photocoagulation, pars plana vitrectomy,)


Hypertensive retinopathy occure due to high blood pressure so that vasoconstriction occur then increased vascular permeability and after that arteriosclerotic changes occure

Treatment  (control of systemic hypertension.)


Retinal detachment: The retina comes loose from the back of the eye. Trauma and diabetes are common causes of this medical emergency.

Rhegmatogenous,  Non rhegmatogenous, tractional RD, exudative RD.

Treatment (surgical, pars plana vitrectomy, internal tamponades)


Age-related macular degeneration:A loss of central vision in both eyes.

Atrophic ARMD, Exudative ARMD

Treatment (prophylactic treatment vit C & E, beta carotene, zinc copper, anti angiogenic therapy, argon laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy,trans papillary thermotherapy, submacular surgery, macular translocation)

Retinitis Pigmentosa: hereditary disorder slowly progressive pigmentary retinal dystrophy mostly effecting rods more than cones.

Patient complains are night blindness and visual field constrictions

Treatment (vitamin A & E, dark sunglasses, avoid to exposure in bright light, low vision aids)

Blunt Trauma: closed injury caused by the blunt object. Blunt injury causes damage to ocular injury by distortion, displacement, counter coup phenomenon. It effects all main structure of eye ball. treatment (bed rest, patching, antifibrinolytic agents, atropine, antiglaucoma drugs, )


There are many natural components which protect the human eye. The example of one is our EYE LIDS which not only protect the eye from injury but also use to distribute tear film on the surface of cornea and conjunctiva. Some instructions are being to mention here which are necessary to follow:

  1. Try to wash your eyes twice a day with water.
  2. Avoid to exposure in sunlight and if necessary use sunglasses.
  3. Improve your personal hygiene.
  4. Try to use your own prescription regularly.
  5. Computer users should visit eye clinics after every three months.
  6. Computer users should improve their working style.
  7. Everyone should take rest of 10 to 15 minutes after every 2 hours of working.
  8. For the health of eye everyone should use green vegetable, fish & fruits.
  9. Try to use sodium chloride (SALT) in a minimum quantity because it increases the hypertension as a result cataract may also develop.
  10. Examination of your eye should be done after every 3 months.
  11. Plastic frames with plastic lens are very good to use for children.
  12. If u felt any problems related to eye then u should have to visit the eye doctor.
  13. Problems like ( Chalazion, Blephritis, Stye and tumors) are only cure when personal hygiene is very good.
  14. Amblyopic children must follow instructions and glasses which are prescribe by doctors.
  15. Control your diabetes as much as you can.
  16. Check your blood pressure twice a month.
  17. Not use any medicine without doctor recommended.
  18. There is a proper light at your working station
  19. Not to use computer in very dim light and not use in very high brightness of your computer.
  20. Adjustable sitting chair, place for the support of your hand and foot.
  21. Contact lens users should take much care while using contact lens.
  22. Patient should know how to remove or insert contact lens into his eye and also know how to clean lens.
  23. Contact lens users should know about complete information how to use contact lens.
  24. Avoid not use mobiles at night in a dim light room or very dark room
  25. Avoid cousin marriage because mostly eye diseases like Refractive Errors Glaucoma etc are occurring in next generation due to cousin marriage.


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Prophet Hazrat Muhammad( sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, "The best that a man can leave behind after his death are three things: a righteous child who makes du'a for him, an ongoing sadaqah whose rewards continue to reach him, and a knowledge that continues to be implemented after him." [Ibn Majah, and others. Verified to be sahih by al-Mundhiri and al-Albani]

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained." (Imam Bukhari)

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